A Lathe machine is a tool that rotates a work piece on its axis in order to perform various operations. Tools are applied to the work piece to create an object having a symmetrical axis of rotation in order to perform actions including cutting, knurling, threading, boring, drilling, facing and turning. Woodturning, metalworking are common applications of lathe machines. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. The work piece is usually held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can typically be moved horizontally to accommodate varying work piece lengths. Other work-holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs
At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. Rotating within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, called the spindle. Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which work-holding accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles may also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a hand-wheel or other accessory mechanism on their outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the work piece.
The spindle is driven either by foot power from a flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the headstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand.
In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds. Various types of speed-changing mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pulley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to the two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manual-shift auto transmission
The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed by undoing a locking nut, sliding it to the required area, and then re-locking it. The tail-stock contains a barrel which does not rotate, but can slide in and out parallel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock spindle. The barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of various type of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel center, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible.
Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is usually another slide called a compound rest, which provides 2 additional axes of motion, rotary and linear. Atop that sits a tool post, which holds a cutting tool which removes material from the work piece. There may or may not be a lead screw, which moves the cross-slide along the bed.
- Bed is Made from High Quality Cast Iron
- Strictly Inspected with Micro Level and Straight Edge
- Flat Seat is Perfectly Matched by Precision Hand Scrapping.
- Spindle is Ground and Made from High Carbon Steel Which Rotates on Three/ Five No's
of Bearings for Smooth Running.
- Perfect Balancing and Thrust of the Spindle is Taken by Heavy Duty Thrust Bearings.
- Also Made by Fitting Taper Roller Bearings in the Headstock.
- Robust Design and Provide with Long Carefully Scrapped Sliding Surfaces.
- Swiveling Compound Slide is Accurately Indexed for Taper Turning.
- A Four Way Steel Turret Tool Post.
- Double Wall Design with Automatic Interlock.
- Prevent Simultaneous Engagement of Feed Shaft and Lead Screw in Lathe Machine.
- Gears and Bearings Including Worm have Suitable Oiling Arrangement.
- Inch Calibrated.
- Made of High Resistant Alloy Steel.
- Large Diameter.
- Threads have very High Degree of Precision in Lathe Machine.
- Strong & Rigid Construction.
- Provided with Set over Motion for Taper Turning.
- Spindle is Ground and made from Alloy Steel
- Quill is Fairly Thick and Properly Graduated.